Schematics can be found here.
I recently watched a bunch of videos from IMSAI Guy and really started to get all nostalgic , I had a little spare time between university semesters so I decided I should go ahead and start a fresh project. This time I wanted to make it based on a backplane, a bit like the IMSAI or ALTAIR systems, this would allow me start off very basic with each part and slowly improve and build up to something nice.
My aims for this project is as follows:
- Be modular by design
- Avoid having cards being dependants on other specific cards
- Use off the shelf parts where possible
- Have designs open source and available on this website
The initial specifications I am working on are:
- Based on the Z80 bus architecture (8-Bit data bus, 16-Bit address bus)
- 62-Pin edge connector (as used for the 8-Bit ISA slot, or XT systems)
- 5V power bus, with space for 12V power bus for future use
- 8-Bit bank address bus
- 4MHz clock
Ideas for the future:
- Using other 8-Bit processors (6502, 6800, ect..)
- Using 16-Bit (or higher?) processors, would require an expansion of the card slots (probably like the 16-Bit ISA does)
- Slave processors
- More banking support
The M62 Bus and connector
The connector is the same as the ISA/XT connector (as mentioned above), I originally was going to use a 50 way connector and call it the M50 system but I found an old motherboard in my garage and found that the 62 way connectors were cheap enough on Digikey, and since they were used in a defined standard they should be more available.
Electrically it is based on the Z80 connections with an extra bank bus, as well as 12V lines.
It will also nicely fit within 10cm so I can use it on boards made using ITead studios 10cm x 10cm service ($19.90 for 10 boards, best service I’ve found so far)
Bonus trivia fact: I didn’t realise until after I settled with this connector that the main motorway (highway/freeway) near where I grew up is called the M62!
Memory and I/O Maps
The Memory Map
- Based on a 64K memory map, I see the address space being split into 4x 16K banks,
- Bank 0: 0x0000 to 0x3FFF – Base/Boot ROM
- Bank 1: 0x4000 to 0x7FFF – Base RAM
- Bank 2: 0x8000 to 0xBFFF – Selectable Bank
- Bank 3: 0xC000 to 0xFFFF – Selectable Bank
I/O Map (now using 16-bit addressing)
- Port 0x0000: Sets Bank 2 address
- Port 0x0001: Sets Bank 3 address
Each memory card is responsible for decoding the address for its own memory, I decided on this approach in order to allow for maximum flexibility in the arrangement of memory.
The Bank Addressing system
The Bank Address Bus is an 8-Bit wide bus on the M62 connector that will present the address of the bank selected for the specific operation.
The banking system is based on a pair of 74HCT573 (or 74HCT373) octal latches, the first one is mapped to I/O port 0x0000 which will be for bank 2, and it’s contents will be present on the Bank Address bus when the accessing memory area between 0x8000 and 0xBFFF (inclusive), the second one is mapped to I/O port 0x0001 for bank 3, and it will present to the Bank Address bus when the accessing memory area between 0xC000 and 0xFFFF (inclusive).
This circuit will reside on the processor card as the I/O addressing is Z80 specific. For a 6502/6800 card there will be a specific circuit for that processor to handle banking.
The PLDs perform 2 sets of address decoding, they decode the I/O addresses to allow the bank addresses to be set, and then they decoded memory addresses to know which bank address to put on the bank address bus.
Front Panel interface
LED’s and Switches
I was aiming to have a similar front panel interface as the IMSAI or the Altair systems, the exact look of the panel is still in development, but it will have switches and LED’s for the address and data busses as well as some control signals (such as WR, RD, MREQ, ect…) and the controls necessary for stepping the processor.
Single stepping of the processor
In order to allow us to debug software, we need a way of single stepping the processor, this schematic uses the Z80’s M1 and Wait pins to allow us to step through. I’m still unsure if I will have this part of the circuit on the Front Panel Interface or just put it on the processor card with a cable going directly to it (as on the IMSAI) to make the front panel processor agnostic.
This circuit worked quite well when I breadboarded the design.
The breadboard is set up with LED’s on A0 and A1, and the data bus is tied to 0V to provide 0x00 (NOP instruction) regardless of what address it reads from. When the switch is in the Run position (the orange/brown wire in the middle of the breadboard being disconnected) it will run through then entire 64K memory space, “reading” NOP’s and skipping to the next address, thus making the LED’s flash as it counts up. When in the Stop position (orange/brown wire to 0v) it will allow count to the next address when the Step is toggled.
The single step circuitry will reside on the Z80 CPU card from now on.
The current schematics are found here, these will be updated as we go along.